The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) has altered the tax landscape for a lot of individuals and businesses. The changes are extensive and this letter provides a high-level overview of some of the highlights to keep you informed. Additional conversations and tax projections are likely necessary to ensure we maximize your tax benefits.
Changes in tax rates
You may have heard in the news that the goal of tax reform was to reduce the number of tax rates from the existing seven rates to three. While that was discussed, the bill that was signed into law still has seven rates, but they are now generally lower with the highest rate being reduced from 39.6% to 37%. The tax rates applicable to net capital gains and qualified dividends did not change.
Increased standard deduction
The new standard deductions are:
- Heads of household: $18,000
- Married filing jointly: $24,000
- All other taxpayers: $12,000
Although you may have historically had itemized deductions exceeding these amounts, other changes to itemized deductions may affect whether you are above the standard deduction in a given year. The increased standard deduction is effective through Dec. 31, 2025.
Elimination of personal and dependent exemptions
In the past, taxpayers received an exemption for themselves, their spouse and each of the eligible dependents that they claimed on their tax return. The TCJA eliminated these exemptions through Dec. 31, 2025.
Child and family tax credit
The TCJA increased the child credit for children under age 17 to $2,000 and also introduced a new $500 credit for a taxpayer’s dependents who are not their qualifying children. In addition, the phase-out limits for these credits have increased to $400,000 for joint filers ($200,000 for others), so that more individuals will be able to take advantage of this credit.
Changes to itemized deductions
- The overall phase out of itemized deductions has been repealed.
- The itemized deduction for state and local taxes is limited to a total of $10,000 ($5,000 for those using the filing status of married filing separately).
- Mortgage interest on loans used to acquire a principal residence and a second home is only deductible on debt up to $750,000 (down from $1 million). Loans in existence on December 14, 2017 are grandfathered (balance up to $1 million still allowed).
- Interest on home equity indebtedness (such as a home equity line of credit) is no longer deductible unless the debt is really acquisition indebtedness (used for home improvement).
- Cash donations to public charities are now deductible up to 60% of adjusted gross income.
- Miscellaneous itemized deductions, such as investment management fees, tax preparation fees, unreimbursed employee business expenses and safe deposit box rental fees are no longer deductible.
- Medical expenses are deductible by the amount the expenses exceed 7.5% of adjusted gross income for 2018 (limit changes to 10% starting in 2019).
These changes (except as noted) to itemized deductions are in effect from Jan. 1, 2018 through Dec. 31, 2025.
New deduction for qualified business income
A new deduction, effective for tax years 2018 through 2025, was introduced in the TCJA that allows individuals a deduction of 20% of qualified business income from a partnership, S corporation or sole proprietorship, as well as 20% of qualified real estate investment trust (REIT) dividends and qualified publicly traded partnership income. This deduction will reduce taxable income, but not adjusted gross income, and is available regardless of whether you itemize your deductions. There are many limitations and restrictions to this provision, so we advise that you schedule a personal consultation with us to fully understand the impact on your situation.
Sec. 529 plans
Sec. 529 plans have been a widely used tool to help taxpayers save money for college, presuming they distribute that money for qualified higher-education costs. Depending on your Sec. 529 plan, you may be eligible for a state tax deduction for contributions to the plan. The TCJA expanded the opportunities available for education tax planning by permitting $10,000 per year to be distributed from Sec. 529 plans to pay for private elementary and secondary tuition.
Under the prior law, individuals who paid alimony to an ex-spouse received a deduction for the alimony paid, while the individuals receiving the alimony treated those payments as income. Tax reform has eliminated the deduction for alimony paid and the recognition of income for alimony received effective for divorce decrees executed after Dec. 31, 2018. We highly recommend that if you are in the midst of divorce proceedings, please have a conversation with us and your divorce attorney to fully understand the financial impacts that this could have.
Estate and gift tax exemptions
Estate and gift tax laws have undergone a number of changes over the past decade. Under the TCJA, the estate and gift tax exemption almost doubled to $11.18 million per person effective as of Jan. 1, 2018. We would be pleased to work collaboratively with your estate planning attorney to make sure your estate plan is appropriate with this change.
Individual shared responsibility payment
The TCJA repealed the individual shared responsibility payment for failure to have minimal essential healthcare coverage. However, this repeal does not take effect until Jan. 1, 2019. This means that if you did not have minimal essential healthcare coverage in the 2018 calendar year, you will still be subject to the penalty if you do not meet one of the exceptions from coverage.
Please call our office to schedule a planning meeting.
We are at your disposal to identify opportunities within the new law that apply to you and help steer you away from new pitfalls and challenges. Please call our office today at 314-842-2001 to set up a tax planning meeting. As always, planning ahead can help you minimize your tax bill and position you for greater success.